## Legged locomotion of robots and animals

(aka TAM 7960, Mechanics of terrestrial locomotion)

**Course home**, **homework**, **Syllabus**** **

# References

### This list will grow. Please make suggestions for additions to this
list.

*A collisional model of the energetic cost of support work qualitatively explains
leg sequencing in walking and galloping, pseudo-elastic leg behavior in running
and the walk-to-run transition*, Ruina, A., Bertram, J.E.A., Srinivasan,
M.,

Journal of Theoretical Biology,
Volume 237, Issue 2, Pages 170-192, November 21, 2005.

(available from Cornell Library or from Ruina's www site)
*On the locomotion of Mammals*, N. Rashevsky.

Bull. Math
Biophys. 10, 11-23, 1948 (pdf)

*Motor code. *Matlab code for picking a battery voltage and gear ratio given a motor (ie,
given k,c and R),
a desired angular velocity and a desired power. This is problem 2 for the homework
due Thursday Feb 11, 2010.

*Dynamics and stability of a rimless spoked wheel: a simple 2D system with
impacts,*

Michael J. Coleman, Dynamical Systems, 2010. (paper emailed to class).

Some primitive samples of animation in Matlab: Particle
goes in a circle,
box rotates and translates, box
rotates and translates using homogeneous transform.

## News Stories

Some stories that cover material that you should be able to understand or
think about better because of this class.

Elephants
run or walk? (See also the article in J of Exp Bio. Relevant papers
are by Heglund and Hutchinson.)

Why
don't you walk on your toes? (See also the article by Carrier in J.
of Exp. Bio.)

Cost
of transport of bees? 4 million miles to a gallon or .5
mg/km. But what is the specific cost of transport? [Sugar has about
3 Cal/gm. The mass of a bee is about 100 mg. So COT =
(.5 mg)*(3 Cal/g)*(4000 J/Cal)/ ((100 mg )*(9.8 m/s^2)*(1 km)) = 6. Is
that impressive?]

Forces
in barefoot running. (See
also Lieberman paper in Nature)

Recycling energy of heelstrike.
(See also paper in PLOS by Collins & Kuo. Collins is a Cornell grad. The
idea behind this is directly related the collisional modeling of walking energetics.)